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Malaria is the second leading cause of death from infectious diseases in Africa. Effective eradication and termination of malaria from being a public health burden required the introduction of the Roll-back Malaria (RBM) initiative by World Health Organization (WHO). Long-lasting Insecticide-Treated Nets (LLINs) was the major vector control strategy of this initiative. The apparent persistence of malaria raised the concern whether LLINs are adequately utilized to prevent bites from vector. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the impact of the LLIN-focused RBM program on health behavior and disease prevalence among recipients in Akinyele local government area (L.G.A.) of Oyo
state, Nigeria. A mixed method-based study was designed utilizing cross-sectional survey to conduct field evaluation following a Twenty-Month LLINs campaign within the L.G.A. Information derived from Key-informant interviews was used to develop a validated structured questionnaire (Reliability Coefficient=0.7). The study adopted a combination of multi-stage and systematic sampling techniques to select 492 households that were surveyed. Data derived were coded and analyzed using SPSS version 21. All statistical tests were conducted at 5% level of significance. The results showed that rates of LLINs coverage (78.3%) and utilization (82.9%) were high and apparently due to preprogram community mobilization activities. However, only 48.4% of the recipients reported to be satisfied with follow-up evaluation of the program by the personnel. Based on the recall of the respondents, there was a significant difference (t = 24.4; df = 491; p <0.001), between pre- and post-program malaria prevalence among study population. Other factors identified in this study that may affect future RBM intervention programs include poor living conditions and poor perception of respondents about malaria and its prevention. The study recommends strategic health promotion programmes that are sustainable in the communities.